Fraud is the deliberate use of deceit, falsehood, or other fraudulent methods to deceive the public or individuals and gain personal benefit in terms of money or property. Examples of fraudulent activities include identity theft, tax evasion, insurance scams, telemarketing fraud, and embezzlement.
Counterfeiting involves the production, possession, or use of counterfeit money as if it were genuine, which is considered a criminal offence in Canada. This encompasses activities such as purchasing, receiving, importing, or exporting counterfeit currency within or outside of Canada.
Forgery occurs when someone knowingly creates a false document with the intent to pass it off as genuine. This act is prohibited under section 366 of the Criminal Code, which covers actions such as adding, altering, or removing material from an authentic document. Examples of forgery include signing a fake signature on a check or creating fraudulent letters for insurance or healthcare purposes.
Identity theft refers to the act of obtaining or possessing another person's personal identity information with the intention of committing a serious offence that involves fraud, deceit, or falsehood as an integral part of the crime.